S4P3. Students will demonstrate the relationship between the application of a force and the resulting change in position and motion on an object.

a. Identify simple machines and explain their uses (lever, pulley, wedge, inclined plane, screw, wheel and axle).

b. Using different size objects, observe how force affects speed and motion.

c. Explain what happens to the speed or direction of an object when a greater force than the initial one is applied.

d. Demonstrate the effect of gravitational force on the motion of an object.


Marvelous Machines: Making Work Easier (S4P3 a., b.) - Videos from the Engineering is Elementary site explain step by step how to create and set-up simple machine stations using common materials. Students use a spring scale to measure the force http://www.mos.org/eie/unitpdfs/howtos.php

Edheads - Simple Machines (S4P3a). Students will use the simulation to identify simple machines that could be found in different parts of the house and in the tool shed. Students also have to identify the type of simple machine and how it works. These simulations are scored so students could print off the results to show how well they did on the activity. A teacher's guide and pre- and post test are also available. http://edheads.org/activities/simple-machines/index.shtml

The Franklin Institute Resources for Science Learning and Museum of Science: Elements of Simple Machines are great for students to read and use visuals to identify simple machines and how they work. (S4P3a). http://sln.fi.edu/qa97/spotlight3/spotlight3.html http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/InventorsToolbox.html

The lesson plan from Teach Engineering titled Engineering: Simple Machines is a good resource for teacher background knowledge. Additional teaching resources are also included. This lesson also correlates the study of simple machines to the work that engineers do. (S4P3a)

Forces and Motion - Engineering Interact (S4P3 c, d) - This online interactive explores friction, gravity, magnetic forces, and balanced and unbalanced forces. The four activities provide information for students as they observe interactives and answer questions throughout the module. Access the individual learning modules here by clicking on each module under Forces and Motion: http://www.engineeringinteract.org/resources.htm. The game, Park World Plot, combines all of the learning modules concepts so students have to apply the information to help solve the mystery. http://www.engineeringinteract.org/resources/parkworldplot/parkworldplotlink.htm

Park World - (S4P3 b, c, d) Investigate which park rides are unsafe and should be shut down. The interactive includes facts about forces and problem solving.


Why Doesn't The Moon Fall Down? - Video segment from Teachersdomain.org that visually explains how gravity keeps the moon orbiting. (S4P3d)


Forces and Motion PhET Simulation - (S4P3 b, c, d) This simulation allows you to create an applied force and view subsequent changes as friction and acceleration change.


My Solar System PhET Simulation - (S4P3 d) Create your own solar system and set positions, masses and velocity to see changes in orbits.